The Russian-Chechen conflict burst out on September 6th, 1991, when the Chechen Republic proclaimed its independence from the Russian Federation. This action of the Chechens was not recognized by the authorities in Moscow, as it violated the provisions of the Russian Federation’s Constitution. Chechen leader Dudaev took a number of political and social decisions that were not well received by Russia. He dissolved the Chechen Parliament and banned any opposition to its authority. In addition, a series of persecutions began against Russians living in Chechnya. Dudaev created paramilitary groups and hired mercenaries devoted only to him. The Moscow government refused to recognize Dudaev’s regime. The leaders of Chechnya refused to sign the Russian Federation Treaty, which displeased the Russians. Under these conditions, in December 1994, the Russian Army entered Chechnya to oust Dudaev. A bloody war followed, culminating in the fight between the Russians and Chechens for the capital of Chechnya, Groznya, but also with guerrilla actions carried out by Chechen paramilitary groups in the mountainous and hard-to-reach areas of their country. A peace treaty was finally signed in May 1997. Nevertheless, this proved to be short-lived, as tensions between Russia and Chechnya flared up again in August 1999, when armed groups of Chechens attacked villages in the Republic of Dagestan. Under these conditions, Vladimir Putin threatened with a new military intervention in Chechnya, which materialized in September 1999. Heavy fighting took place, ending with the Russian troops occupying the main cities in Chechnya. In spite of this, the Chechens did not surrender. They briefly seized some cities and committed numerous terrorist attacks during 2000. The forceful intervention of the Russian security forces and the elimination of the paramilitary groups’ leaders led to the gradual de-escalation of the conflict. In 2009, the Russian leader Medvedev declared that in Chechnya “life has normalized to some extent” (Chechnya profile – Timeline 2018).
Cyberspace is an operational domain for the North Atlantic Alliance, and cyber defence is part of NATO’s fundamental mission called collective defence. NATO is an intergovernmental organization that is aware of the negative impact that cyber attacks launched against the critical infrastructures of member states can have. NATO’s most important responsibility is the collective defence of allies against security threats from all sectors, including cyberspace.
In the information society, cyber attacks launched upon the information technology infrastructure are increasingly diversified and complex. Cybercriminals or black hat hackers use a wide range of techniques, tactics and procedures to compromise computer systems. APT and ransomware attacks are two cyber security threats that many companies and government institutions face. Ransomware is a medium complexity attack, while APT is a high complexity cyber attack. The emergence of certain hybrid malicious programs (computer worm-ransomware) and the diversification of attack vectors represent new challenges for specialists and organizations.
Book Review: Mark Bourrie (2016). ISIS – Game of death – Martyrs, assassinations and fascination, Corint Publishing House, Bucharest. Original book title: The Killing Game – Martyrdom, Murder and the Lure of ISIS. Mark Bourrie’s work was also published in Romania, by the Corint Publishing House, in 2016. It is structured on 13 chapters and has 320 pages. The work falls within the scientific fields of security and intelligence studies. The theme addressed by Mark Bourrie is of global importance, as, nowadays, terrorism is a threat to human communities and states. The book is an up-to-date research on the issue and manifestation of terrorism in the world, with reference to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) terrorist organization and its activity.
Recenzia cărții: Norrie MacQueen (2006). Peacekeeping and the International System, Editura Routledge. Lucrarea lui Norrie MacQueen a apărut în anul 2006, la Editura Routledge, este structurată pe 11 capitole și conține un număr de 290 de pagini. Lucrarea se încadrează în domeniile științifice relații internaționale și studii de securitate.
În cadrul acestui articol voi evidenția un modus operandi al hackerilor care lansează atacuri cibernetice de tip Denial of Service (DoS). Voi arăta teoretic cum pot fi realizate atacurile CAM Overflow și TCP SYN Flood, utilizând Kali Linux, o distribuție de Linux utilizată de criminalii cibernetici pentru a putea lansa atacuri de tip MitM (Man-in-the-Middle), atacuri DoS, observarea traficului dintr-o rețea de calculatoare etc. Hackerii pot afecta funcționarea dispozitivelor din rețeaua locală a unei organizații (server, router, switch etc.) prin trimiterea a mii de pachete/secundă către dispozitivul țintă. CAM Overflow este un atac prin care un hacker urmărește să supra-aglomereze tabela CAM a unui switch cu adrese MAC, iar TCP SYN Flood este un atac care poate fi lansat împotriva unui server din rețeaua de calculatoare.